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Consultant/ Service Contract on Undersatnding Why Girls and Young Women are More Vulnerable to Climate Change Impacts in Thailand

Plan International Thailand : Job Advertisement

 

Terms of Reference

 

Consultant/ Service Contract on Undersatnding Why Girls and Young Women are More Vulnerable to Climate Change Impacts in Thailand

 

 

  1. Introduction: Plan’s Climate Change Adaptation Project

Plan International’s regional Child-Centered Climate Change Adaptation Project began in November 2015 through funding from the German Ministry of Environment (BMUB), involving three countries: Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. The project aims to build the awareness of children, young people and their communities in areas of high climate change risk. Plan International builds the capacity of such communities to understand future climate change impacts, prioritize actions, and implement innovative solutions to help them adapt. Children and young people are integral to this process, and through the project they are activated to not only be beneficiaries, but active leaders and innovators of climate change adaptation action. In this way, climate change adaptation is not only implemented for, but with children and young people.

 

Considering climate change impacts increase in severity across the region, emerging evidence suggests that those who are the most impacted are often girls. Too much or not enough rainfall, higher temperatures, and lack of water result in a loss of agricultural productivity. It is estimated that climate change could result in the loss of up to 30% of rural GDP the lower Mekong by 2018, having devastating impacts on the most poor (USAID Mekong ARCC, 2015).

 

As agricultural productivity suffers and traditional livelihoods are impacted, the most poor will see a quantifiable loss in their income across the region. When families across the region experience crop losses, girls in particular tend to suffer the most from undernutrition and malnutrition when less food becomes available (UNICEF, 2015). The increasing time spent by girls and young women on agricultural tasks has also been linked to a rise in school attrition and school absenteeism. 

 

Livelihood insecurity heightens the susceptibility of girls and young women to unsafe migration, including labor and sexual exploitation. Girls and women’s social status and lack of decision making power makes them doubly vulnerable to climate change impacts, which are projected to worsen drastically in the Asia region.  Climate change impacts interact with and compound existing non-climate vulnerabilities, resulting in an increasingly dire crisis for the poorest girls and young women.

 

 

Without options and the availability of adaptive solutions, millions more girls and young women will plunge into poverty and extreme vulnerability. Due to a host of existing inequalities like the lack of resources, decision making power and access to information, girls and young women are disproportionately affected by climate change impacts. Despite this, few climate change adaptation programs target girls and young women explicitly, nor do they state any specialized approach for reaching such groups.

 

  1. Background of the study

 

  • The Research Gap

 

Plan, its partners and the NGO community have produced practical tools for involving children and youth around how to involve children and youth in climate change adaptation programs. Simple research and case studies have also been generated by UNICEF, Save the Children and the Children in a Changing Climate Coalition speaking to why there is a need to involve children. Girls’ unique vulnerabilities were documented through Plan’s case study publication: Weathering the Storm: Adolescent Girls and Climate Change in 2011. 

“How” to involve children in climate change adaptation has been relatively been well developed, however the gap remains in making the case for investing in reaching girls and young women especially, and the intersection of gender and age exclusion.

 

  • Opportunity to Address the “Girl Gap” in Adaptation Policies, Programs and Financing

 

As a result of the Paris Agreement initiated at the Conference of Parties’ in 2014, national governments committed to mobilizing a staggering $100 billion dollars in “new and additional finance” for climate adaptation and mitigation by 2020. So far, countries have rapidly mobilized $27 billion towards this goal, with the Green Climate Fund and Adaptation Fund serving as main financing institutions, and overall donor funding for climate change adaptation has witnessed a sharp rise.

 

Alongside the rapid mobilization of finance, national governments are now drafting or refining national-level strategies to address climate change. All countries are now in the process of drafting or refining their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs), which will define national adaptation strategies, priority programs as well as the financing of such programs. National Adaptation Plans will set priorities for what climate change adaptation projects are funded.

 

However, only 40% of all submitted draft NDCs make reference to gender. Fewer match plans to budgeting, and even less refer to the additional vulnerabilities faced by children and young people. Only a handful of National Adaptation Plans reference children and youth, and rarely beyond mentioning them as a part of the population targeted. Currently, Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan makes no reference differential vulnerabilities experienced by different groups. Despite the global effort to involve build resilience for the most poor and vulnerable through climate adaptation, donors and governments, the particular population of girls and young women have been overlooked as targets

 

 

 

2017 presents a pivotal window for policy influence and advocacy to national governments as they devise these strategies. Governments and donors, beyond the NGO community, need to be convinced of the need to include within their policies, plans and financing provisions special considerations to reach girls and young women. They must first be convinced that designing climate change adaptation programs alone will not address all vulnerabilities and all vulnerable groups equally.

 

  1. Objective of the study: evidence to Guide Policy Action

 

Quantifying the benefits of adaptation on girls and young women would aid Plan in convincing governments and donors on the need to involve such groups explicitly in policies, programs and financing at the national level. National governments, donors as well as other stakeholders must understand beyond anecdotes and stories why climate change adaptation should target children—especially girls and young women in particular. No rigorous evidence currently exists to quantify the greater degree of negative impacts felt by girls and young women, and such evidence is what is needed to inform government policy and finance decisions.

 

As the decision around the financing, design or selection of climate change adaptation programs is driven increasingly by Ministries of Finance and Ministries of Planning, economic and quantifiable arguments for investment are needed. The same principle applies to Ministries of Environment themselves, who need to see a clear and robust rationale for why they should invest in this group, underlining “why” in addition to “how.”

 

  1. Research approach and key research questions

 

We plan to work with a strong credible research institution to generate research that would quantify the potential benefits of intervention versus the costs of inaction. This research will contribute to ‘making the case’ for and showing how to invest particularly in girls and young women in climate change adaptation policies, programs and financing.  The research would also shed light on the unique vulnerabilities of girls and young women, exploring how climate change-related impacts interact and compound with pre-existing vulnerabilities such as social stigma, gender roles, levels of education and poor natural resources management.

 

The key research questions would potentially include:

 

  • What uniquely drives climate vulnerability among girls and young women in Thailand?
  • Why are girls and young women more vulnerable to climate change impacts?
  • What pre-existing social conditions further drive these vulnerabilities? (lack of decision making, lack of control over assets, social roles, etc.)
  • What adaptive and resilience-building measures have been most affective building the resilience of girls and young women?

 

The report will also be focused on solutions: what approaches are most beneficial to strengthening the resilience of girls and young women particularly? Yet this is not meant to be a practitioner’s guide: such tools already exist. Such research will be used to inform the programmatic design of future climate change adaptation projects as well as be used to inform national governments’ prioritization of effective adaptation programs.

 

The report will be user friendly and present findings from rigorous research in an appealing, digestible way. It will extrapolate the implications of evidence for government decision-makers.

 

 

  1. Expected output

Research publication, to be finalized by 30th April 2018

 

 

  1. Timeframe

The duration from this consultancy will be 22 weeks, between November 2017 – April 2018.

 

Key milestone/activity

Responsible

Tentative time

Consultancy advertised

Plan

3 NOV 2017

Deadline for submitting proposals to Plan

Plan

12 NOV 2017

Consultant interviews/review and selection of proposals

Plan

13-15 NOV 2017

Consultant selected

Plan

16 NOV 2017

Commencement of the contract; Signing of child Protection policy documents

Plan and Consultant

17 NOV 2017

Review of materials / Literature review

Consultant

 

Data collection / field work

Consultant

20 NOV 2017 –  31 JAN 2018

1st draft report with preliminary findings submitted

Consultant

15 FEB 2018

Final research report submitted

Consultant

28 FEB 2018

Formal report launch

Plan and Consultant

31 MAR 2018

Research editing and layout finished

Consultant

15 APR 2018

Report finalized and formatted for electronic/print publication

Consultant

30 APR 2018

 

  1. Expected competencies of consultant
  • Experience in conducting academic research by using qualitative and quantitative method and able to triangulate data including methodology and instruments,
  • Strong analytical skills,
  • Experiences in research in the area of gender, climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction,
  • Good understanding of national policy related to climate change adaptation,
  • Has a team of experienced human resource in data collection, data entry, editing and analysis,
  • Available full - time during the period of consultancy,
  • Experience in carrying out research with a gender focus and children/youths participation preferred,
  • No history of violation of child rights, child abuse

 

 

 

  1. Plan International’s Child Protection Policy

 

The consultant / consultant group will comply to the principles of Plan International’s Child Protection Policy in our dealings with children and young people. The welfare of someone under the age of eighteen is our paramount consideration. This means their interests and safety must take priority over any editorial requirement. All children and young people, regardless of age, disability, gender, racial or ethnic origin, religious belief and sexual identity have a right to protection from harm or abuse.

 

  1. Resources

WBS Budget code for the technical research consultant is TH02401-THA1-035-1192-05.

All expenses related to the events organizing in communities, ethnic translation fees, and logistic arrangement in target areas. WBS Budget code for this activity is TH02401-THA1-035-1197-26

 

  1. How to apply

Interested consultant should submit their CVs and research proposal by 12 November 2017 to HR Department Hiranya.Chantapong@plan-international.org

 

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